Acute kidney failure (injury): A condition in which there is sudden or
rapid loss of kidney functions. This type of kidney damage is temporary
and usually reversible.
It is a medical condition in which hemoglobin is reduced in
blood. Anemia leads to weakness, fatigue and shortness of breath on
exertion. Anemia is common in CKD and occurs due to decreased
erythropoietin production by kidney.
Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD): See CCPD.
Arteriovenous fistula (AV Fistula):
It means creating a connection
between artery and vein surgically, usually in the forearm. In an AV
fistula a large amount of blood with high pressure enters into the vein
causing dilatation of the vein. The enlarged dilated veins allow easy
repeated needle insertion required for hemodialysis. AV fistula is the most
common and the best method of vascular access for long term
Artificial kidney: See dialyzer.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH):
It is common for the prostate
gland to become enlarged as a man ages. BPH is a non-cancerous prostatic
enlargement in elderly males which compresses the urethra, blocks urine
stream and causes problems in urination.
It is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls
of blood vessels as the heart pumps out blood. Blood pressure is one of
the principal vital signs and its measurement consists of two numbers.
The first number indicates systolic blood pressure which measures the
maximum pressure exerted when heart contracts. The second number
indicates diastolic pressure, a measurement taken between beats, when
the heart is at rest.
It is a severe and permanent damage to brain
that does not respond with any medical or surgical treatment. In brain
death, the body’s respiration and blood circulation are artificially
Cadaveric kidney transplantation:
See deceased kidney
The most abundant mineral in the body, essential for the
development and maintenance of strong bones and teeth. Milk and milk
products like yogurt and cheese are rich natural sources of calcium.
Catheter for hemodialysis: It is a long, flexible hollow tube with two
lumens. Blood is withdrawn from one lumen, enters the dialysis circuit
for purification, and is returned to the body via the other lumen. Insertion
of double lumen catheter is the most common and effective method for
emergency and temporary hemodialysis.
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD):
CAPD is a
form of dialysis that can be carried out by a person at home without the
use of a machine. In this type of dialysis, fluid is exchanged at regular
intervals throughout the day, i.e. 24-hours a day, seven days a week.
Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD): CCPD or Automated
peritoneal dialysis (APD) is a form of continuous peritoneal dialysis carried
out at home every day with an automated cycler machine. In CCPD, a
machine performs fluid exchanges while the patient is sleeping at night.
In this process the machine automatically fills and drains the dialysis
solution from the abdomen.
Creatinine and urea:
These are breakdown or waste products of protein
metabolism. These substances are removed by kidneys. The usual level
of serum creatinine is 0.8 to 1.4 mg% and that of urea is 2 to 4 mg%. In
kidney failure the level of urea and creatinine in blood rises.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD):
Gradual progressive and irreversible
loss of kidney function over several months to years is called chronic
kidney disease. In this non- curable disease, kidney function reduces
slowly and continuously. After a long period it reduces to a stage where
the kidney stops working almost completely. This advanced and life
214. Save Your Kidneys
threatening stage of the disease is called End Stage Kidney Disease
A diagnostic procedure in which the doctor looks inside
the bladder and the urethra using a thin, lighted instrument called a
Deceased (cadaveric) kidney transplantation:
It is a surgical
procedure in which a healthy kidney donated by a person with brain
death is transplanted in a patient with chronic kidney disease.
Diabetic kidney disease (nephropathy):
Long-standing diabetes causes
damage to small blood vessels of the kidney. This damage initially causes
loss of protein in urine. Subsequently it causes hypertension, swelling and
then gradual and progressive damage to the kidney. Finally, progressive
deterioration leads to severe kidney failure (End stage kidney disease).
This diabetes induced kidney problem is known as diabetic kidney disease.
Diabetic kidney disease is the most common cause of chronic kidney
disease, accounting for 40-45 percent of new cases of CKD.
It is an artificial process by which waste products and unwanted
water is removed from the body in patients with kidney failure.
An artificial kidney that filters blood and removes wastes and
extra water from the body in the process of hemodialysis.
Drugs that increase the production of urine and increases
excretion of water in the form of urine which helps to lose water from
body. Diuretics are also called “water pills.”
It is the weight of a person after all excess fluid is removed
During peritoneal dialysis, the period for which PD fluid
remains in the abdomen is called the dwell time. During dwell time the
process of purification takes place.
The eGFR (estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate) is a number
which is calculated from blood creatinine level and other information.
eGFR measures how well kidneys are working and its normal value is 90
or more. The eGFR test is useful for the diagnosis, grading of stages and
monitoring the progression of CKD.
There are many minerals like sodium, potassium, calcium
in the blood stream that regulate important function of the body. These
chemicals are called electrolytes. As the kidney keeps the electrolyte
concentrations constant in blood, in patients with kidney diseases, blood
is tested to check electrolyte levels.
Endstage kidney disease (ESKD):
Advanced stage of chronic kidney
disease (Stage 5 CKD) is known as endstage kidney disease (ESKD) or
end stage renal disease (ESRD). At this stage of CKD there is complete
or almost complete failure of the kidneys. ESKD patients need treatment,
such as dialysis or transplantation, to lead a fairly normal life.
It is a hormone produced by the kidneys that
promotes the formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow. If the
kidneys are damaged, they are not able to produce enough erythropoietin
resulting in decrease in the formation of red blood cells which leads to
anemia. Erythropoietin is available as an injectable medication for the
treatment of anemia due to kidney failure.
It means one complete cycle of peritoneal dialysis, consist-
ing of three stages. The first stage is inflow of dialysis fluid in the abdomen.
In the second stage, the fluid remains in the abdomen for several hours
allowing excess fluid and toxins to move from the blood to the dialysis
fluid (also called dwell). The third stage is outflow of the dialysis fluid.
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy ( ESWL):
It is a modality in
which highly concentrated shock waves produced by a lithotriptor machine
break up urinary stones. The stones break down into small particles and
are easily passed through the urinary tract in urine. ESWL is an effective
and widely used treatment modality for kidney stones.
See arteriovenous fistula.
A type of access for long term hemodialysis. Graft is a short piece
of synthetic soft tube which joins a vein and an artery in the arm. Needles
are inserted in this graft during hemodialysis treatment.
Most popular modality to treat kidney failure. In
hemodialysis blood is purified with the help of dialysis machine and an
artificial kidney (dialyzer).
216. Save Your Kidneys
It is a protein molecule in red blood cells that
carries oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and returns carbon
dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Hemoglobin is measured by blood
test and its reduced value is referred as anemia.
Normal serum potassium levels are between 3.5 and
5.0 mEq/L. Hyperkalemia is a condition characterized by elevated levels
of potassium in the blood. Hyperkalemia is common in kidney failure, can
be life threatening, and requires urgent medical treatment.
It is the term used to describe high blood pressure.
Immunosuppressant Drug: Medications that suppress or decrease
the body’s immune system and prevent the body from rejecting a
Intravenous urogram (IVU):
It is an investigation where a series
of x-rays of the urinary system is taken after injecting an intravenous
iodine containing dye. This test gives information about function of the
kidney and structure of the urinary tract.
A procedure to get a small piece of kidney tissue with
a needle so that it can be examined under a microscope for the diagnosis
of the disease.
Condition in which deterioration in kidney function leads
to inadequate filtration of toxins and waste products from the blood. It is
characterized by an increase in urea and creatinine levels in blood.
Refers to the appearance of small but abnormal
amounts of albumin in urine. Its presence indicates early onset of diabetic
See voiding cystouretehrogram.
Nephron: The functional unit of the kidney responsible for the actual
purification and filtration of the blood. Each kidney contains about one
A physician specialized in kidney diseases.
Nephrotic syndrome: Kidney problem that is seen more frequently in
children characterized by loss of protein in urine (more than 3.5 grams
per day), low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, and swelling.
Paired kidney transplantation:
Many patients with endstage kidney
disease have healthy and willing potential kidney donors with an
incompatible blood type or tissue cross match.Paired kidney donation is
the strategy that allows the exchange of living donor kidneys between
two incompatible donor/recipient pairs to create two compatible pairs.
It is an effective treatment modality for kidney
failure. In this process of purification, dialysis fluid is introduced into the
abdominal cavity through a special catheter. This fluid removes waste
products and extra water from the blood. Fluid is removed from the
abdomen after a variable period of time, and discarded.
It is an infection inside the abdominal cavity. Peritonitis is a
common complication of peritoneal dialysis and can be life threatening, if
Phosphorus is the second most-abundant mineral found in
the body, next only to calcium. It works with calcium to build strong
bones and teeth. Meats, nuts, milk, eggs, cereals are phosphorus rich
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD):
PKD is the most common genetic
disorder of the kidney, characterized by the growth of numerous cysts
(fluid sacs) in the kidneys. It is among the leading causes of chronic
It is a very important mineral in the body needed for the
proper function of nerves, heart and muscles. Fresh fruit, fruit juices,
coconut water and dry fruits are rich sources of potassium.
Pre-emptive kidney transplantation:
Kidney transplantation is usually
carried out after a variable period of dialysis therapy. A kidney
transplant done before the initiation of maintenance dialysis is a pre-
emptive kidney transplant.
They are one of the three main classes of food that build,
repair and maintain body tissues. Pulses, milk, eggs and animal foods are
rich sources of protein.
218. Save Your Kidneys
Presence of abnormally high levels of protein in urine.
The process in which the body recognizes that a transplanted
organ is not its own and tries to destroy it.
A membrane that selectively allows certain
dissolved substances and fluid to pass through, while holding back the
others. Membrane is a thin natural tissue or artificial material.
A mineral in the body that regulates blood pressure and blood
volume. The most common form of sodium in food is sodium chloride,
which is table salt.
Trans-urethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP):
It is the standard
treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) performed by urolo-
gists. In this minimally-invasive surgical treatment, an instrument called a
cystoscope is passed through the urethra and the prostate gland blocking
the urine flow is removed.
It is a painless diagnostic test that uses high frequency
sound waves to create an image of the organs or structures inside the
body. Ultrasound is a simple, useful and safe test that provides valuable
information such as the size of kidney, obstruction to urine flow, and the
presence of cyst, stone and tumors.
A surgeon specialized in kidney diseases.
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR):
It is a condition with an abnormal
backward flow (reflux) of urine from the bladder toward the ureters and
possibly up to the kidneys. This is an anatomic and functional disorder
that can happen either on one or both sides. VUR is the major cause of
urinary tract infection, high blood pressure and kidney failure in children.
Voiding cystourethrogram: A procedure used to outline the anatomy
of the lower urinary tract (bladder and urethra) by catheterizing a patient
and introducing solution (dye) which can be seen on X-ray films. The
patient is asked to void urine and X-rays are taken